Invisible in Plain Sight. Was I That Teacher? Simple Technique: Turn-and-Talk. Feedback: Peer Teaching. Simple Technique: Take Notes. Feedback: Self, Peer, Teacher. Goals to Guide Notes. Note-Taking Methods. Evaluation Scale or Rubric.
Feedback Is a Two-Way Street. Putting it Together. Many Strategies Work. Feedback by Walking Around.
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Feedback: The Hinge That Joins Teaching and Learning
Feedback in the Twenty-First Century. Feedback and the Unmotivated Student. Changing Grading Habits.
Feedback in Large Classes. What Motivates Us. The How, Not the What. Twenty-First Century Feedback. Feedback for Myself. Everybody's Talking at Me. Jason Wenschlag, Principal. Strathmore Secondary College, Victoria, Australia.
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Dana L. Ziegler, Primary Teacher. Bill Hayes, Principal. Diane Quirk, Instructional Technology Specialist. Cicero, NY. Michael Adams, Director. Colegio Jorge Washington, Cartagena, Columbia. David T Conley, Professor. University of Oregon. Load more. They focus on the topic of the lesson, they interact personally with the material actively determining what they know or don't know , and they communicate their learning status to the teacher who is walking around the room glancing over students' shoulders at their scores.
It may be the first time these students have communicated to a teacher where they stand cognitively. Figure 1 shows the goal template that Trevor Collins, a high school history teacher in Grainger County, Tennessee, uses. Every day, each student fills in the date and the learning objectives Trevor provides. Students score themselves on their understanding of the topic—and their level of effort—both before and after the class. Trevor found that his students didn't pay attention when he simply wrote the day's goals on the board, but with the templates, they truly know their learning objective.
Teachers sometimes worry that students won't accurately assess themselves. At first, students may inflate their scores, but they usually adjust their scoring when they realize the numbers are used to track their progress and signal their improvement.
Comments like, "Everyone should be a 1 or a 2 today because I'm just introducing the topic" help. I think of such goal sheets as a "neuronal courtesy" that enables learners to ease into the lesson. Teachers are often pleasantly surprised by how quickly students get used to the routine of scoring themselves and how much more focused they become. Learning to use interactive notebooks overcomes two drawbacks of traditional note taking: Students receive little feedback on whether they understand the information they're copying down, and struggling students often don't know how to organize notebooks and take good notes.
Have students designate the left-hand pages in a regular spiral notebook as "student" pages and the right-hand pages as the "teacher" side.
ERIC - ED - Feedback: The Hinge that Joins Teaching and Learning, Corwin,
During class time, notebooks should be open so both sides show. After students note the goal of the day's lesson on their goal-accounting templates, the teacher should provide an evocative cue related to the lesson's content—an anticipatory question, a statement, or a video. For example, 5th grade teacher Jenny Humble showed a short clip of a video she found on YouTube called "Birth to 10 Years" before teaching about how people's characters change over time.
In pairs, students briefly share their thoughts about the cue and the topic, including questions or background knowledge they each have. Each then individually writes a short phrase or draws a sketch about the topic on the student side of the notebook. This brief thought-mining hooks into students' prior knowledge and gives them time for peer feedback and reflection.
Every student becomes engaged. As the teacher segues into the presentation of new material, students take notes more formally on the right side of the notebook. This is the "teacher" side because the student is recording material the teacher presents. Some teachers provide partial notes or advance organizers for students. Periodically, the teacher pauses; students then stop taking formal notes and process what they've just heard on the notebook's student side—drawing a diagram, answering a hypothetical question, or summarizing the topic in their own words.
They then share what they've written with a partner; exchange ideas and clarifying feedback with that partner or as a whole class ; and resume taking notes on the right side as the teacher continues the instruction. When note taking was optional in 7th grade English teacher Becky Wegner's class, her telltale students simply didn't take notes—and performed poorly on tests. Once Becky taught students to keep interactive notebooks that they shared with peers and with her, she saw these students transform.
Sharing notes with peers increased the overall amount of feedback each student received and the overall productivity of her class. Learners who previously gave up when required to copy notes became engaged. Students' notes became works in progress that deepened their understandings Pollock, The third technique increases teacher-to-student feedback and student-to-teacher feedback.
A teacher creates a matrix with a student roster down the left side and the curriculum goals at the top see fig. During class, as students collaborate on a topic or work independently, the teacher walks around with this roster on a clipboard. The teacher listens, observes, or views work in students' notebooks and jots down a score reflecting how well each student seems to be mastering the standard or goal for that lesson. Reprinted with permission.
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The teacher might pause to correct student work or to positively acknowledge a student's or group's progress as this "live scoring" unfolds. Because the instructor is walking around and is easily accessible, a disengaged or unsure student may be more likely to ask for attention or help—and thus stay engaged. As the teacher documents how students are doing with this quick scoring formative assessment technique, he or she begins to see patterns in understandings among students, which helps with differentiating lessons.
I once worked with an elementary teacher, Adrienne Braxton, who was great at patiently giving struggling students help but who couldn't learn from the patterns in her feedback because she never recorded any data during class—she only responded to questions and confusions that kept popping up. Once Adrienne started using a scoring roster in class, she began to understand how well every student knew the lesson's goal.
She realized what she needed to adjust for the next lesson or for some students. Through guiding many teachers like Adrienne through the scoring roster technique, I've found the following actions make it successful:. Prepare the rosters for the week ahead of time. Leave enough space for scoring daily learning objectives and for an overall score for the broader learning goal. Use a different, color-coded clipboard for each subject area.
Never erase. Every data point can inform the trend. Use a simple scale such as 1 to 4. To reduce your amount of writing, make a mental note that you'll consider any student's skill level to be 3 unless he or she gets a score that says otherwise. Share scores with students as a quick way to give and receive feedback.
Move around the room two or three times, scoring before interacting with students, to give them a chance to work before you interrupt their independent attempts to perform. Using these strategies, teachers in all subject areas, including English as a second language and special education, have increased student achievement. A positive cycle sets in. As students receive more feedback and thus become more engaged in learning activities, their actions and self-assessments provide more feedback to teachers, who, in turn, make better decisions about instruction.
As we usher in a new set of standards, let's remember that a new curriculum alone won't change instruction or increase achievement. It's true that the learning goals we choose are important. As a teacher I worked with once noted, there's no such thing as good feedback to a bad set of goals. But an improved set of learning targets won't bring change unless teachers set up conditions that transform disengaged learners into learners motivated to work toward those targets, such as by using these three tools.
Hattie, J. Visible learning: A synthesis of over meta-analyses relating to achievement. London: Routledge.